# 某岛

… : "…アッカリ～ン . .. . " .. .
August 22, 2011

# SPOJ 1557. Can you answer these queries II

### Analysis :

Tags: GSS、线段树、离线、Hash、双标记。

fgd 的数据结构 S 级神题。。。无论从建模还是从实现上都有一定难度.. .

（对于至少选一个数字的问题（例如 GSS1，但是我用离线超时了撒。。）。。
。。将下文中的的 SS、DD 初始化成 -INF 和 DD 每次 Release 掉之后也赋值成 -INF 即可了。）

```/** ` Micro Mezzo Macro Flation -- Overheated Economy ., **/

#include <algorithm>
#include <iostream>
#include <iomanip>
#include <sstream>
#include <cstring>
#include <cstdio>
#include <string>
#include <vector>
#include <bitset>
#include <queue>
#include <cmath>
#include <ctime>
#include <list>
#include <set>
#include <map>

using namespace std;

#define REP(i, n) for (int i=0;i<int(n);++i)
#define FOR(i, a, b) for (int i=int(a);i<int(b);++i)
#define DWN(i, b, a) for (int i=int(b-1);i>=int(a);--i)
#define REP_1(i, n) for (int i=1;i<=int(n);++i)
#define FOR_1(i, a, b) for (int i=int(a);i<=int(b);++i)
#define DWN_1(i, b, a) for (int i=int(b);i>=int(a);--i)
#define REP_C(i, n) for (int n____=int(n),i=0;i<n____;++i)
#define FOR_C(i, a, b) for (int b____=int(b),i=a;i<b____;++i)
#define DWN_C(i, b, a) for (int a____=int(a),i=b-1;i>=a____;--i)
#define REP_N(i, n) for (i=0;i<int(n);++i)
#define FOR_N(i, a, b) for (i=int(a);i<int(b);++i)
#define DWN_N(i, b, a) for (i=int(b-1);i>=int(a);--i)
#define REP_1_C(i, n) for (int n____=int(n),i=1;i<=n____;++i)
#define FOR_1_C(i, a, b) for (int b____=int(b),i=a;i<=b____;++i)
#define DWN_1_C(i, b, a) for (int a____=int(a),i=b;i>=a____;--i)
#define REP_1_N(i, n) for (i=1;i<=int(n);++i)
#define FOR_1_N(i, a, b) for (i=int(a);i<=int(b);++i)
#define DWN_1_N(i, b, a) for (i=int(b);i>=int(a);--i)
#define REP_C_N(i, n) for (n____=int(n),i=0;i<n____;++i)
#define FOR_C_N(i, a, b) for (b____=int(b),i=a;i<b____;++i)
#define DWN_C_N(i, b, a) for (a____=int(a),i=b-1;i>=a____;--i)
#define REP_1_C_N(i, n) for (n____=int(n),i=1;i<=n____;++i)
#define FOR_1_C_N(i, a, b) for (b____=int(b),i=a;i<=b____;++i)
#define DWN_1_C_N(i, b, a) for (a____=int(a),i=b;i>=a____;--i)

#define DO(n) while(n--)
#define DO_C(n) int n____ = n; while(n____--)
#define TO(i, a, b) int s_=a<b?1:-1,b_=b+s_;for(int i=a;i!=b_;i+=s_)
#define TO_1(i, a, b) int s_=a<b?1:-1,b_=b;for(int i=a;i!=b_;i+=s_)
#define SQZ(i, j, a, b) for (int i=int(a),j=int(b)-1;i<j;++i,--j)
#define SQZ_1(i, j, a, b) for (int i=int(a),j=int(b);i<=j;++i,--j)
#define REP_2(i, j, n, m) REP(i, n) REP(j, m)
#define REP_2_1(i, j, n, m) REP_1(i, n) REP_1(j, m)

#define ALL(A) A.begin(), A.end()
#define LLA(A) A.rbegin(), A.rend()
#define CPY(A, B) memcpy(A, B, sizeof(A))
#define INS(A, P, B) A.insert(A.begin() + P, B)
#define ERS(A, P) A.erase(A.begin() + P)
#define BSC(A, X) find(ALL(A), X) // != A.end()
#define CTN(T, x) (T.find(x) != T.end())
#define SZ(A) int(A.size())
#define PB push_back
#define MP(A, B) make_pair(A, B)

#define Rush int T____; RD(T____); DO(T____)
#pragma GCC optimize ("O2")
#define Ruby system("ruby main.rb")
#define Pascal system("fpc main.pas")

typedef long long LL;
typedef double DB;
typedef unsigned UINT;
typedef unsigned long long ULL;

typedef vector<int> VI;
typedef vector<char> VC;
typedef vector<string> VS;
typedef vector<LL> VL;
typedef vector<DB> VD;
typedef set<int> SI;
typedef set<string> SS;
typedef set<LL> SL;
typedef set<DB> SD;
typedef map<int, int> MII;
typedef map<string, int> MSI;
typedef map<LL, int> MLI;
typedef map<DB, int> MDI;
typedef map<int, bool> MIB;
typedef map<string, bool> MSB;
typedef map<LL, bool> MLB;
typedef map<DB, bool> MDB;
typedef pair<int, int> PII;
typedef pair<int, bool> PIB;
typedef vector<PII> VII;
typedef vector<VI> VVI;
typedef vector<VII> VVII;
typedef set<PII> SII;
typedef map<PII, int> MPIII;
typedef map<PII, bool> MPIIB;

/** I/O Accelerator **/

/* ... :" We are I/O Accelerator ... Use us at your own risk ;) ... " .. */

template<class T> inline void RD(T &);
template<class T> inline void OT(const T &);

template<class T> inline T& _RD(T &x){ RD(x); return x;}
inline int RD(){ int x; RD(x); return x;}
inline LL RD_LL(){ LL x; RD(x); return x;}
inline DB RD_DB(){ DB x; RD(x); return x;}

template<class T0, class T1> inline void RD(T0 &x0, T1 &x1){RD(x0), RD(x1);}
template<class T0, class T1, class T2> inline void RD(T0 &x0, T1 &x1, T2 &x2){RD(x0), RD(x1), RD(x2);}
template<class T0, class T1, class T2, class T3> inline void RD(T0 &x0, T1 &x1, T2 &x2, T3 &x3){RD(x0), RD(x1), RD(x2), RD(x3);}
template<class T0, class T1, class T2, class T3, class T4> inline void RD(T0 &x0, T1 &x1, T2 &x2, T3 &x3, T4 &x4){RD(x0), RD(x1), RD(x2), RD(x3), RD(x4);}
template<class T0, class T1, class T2, class T3, class T4, class T5> inline void RD(T0 &x0, T1 &x1, T2 &x2, T3 &x3, T4 &x4, T5 &x5){RD(x0), RD(x1), RD(x2), RD(x3), RD(x4), RD(x5);}
template<class T0, class T1, class T2, class T3, class T4, class T5, class T6> inline void RD(T0 &x0, T1 &x1, T2 &x2, T3 &x3, T4 &x4, T5 &x5, T6 &x6){RD(x0), RD(x1), RD(x2), RD(x3), RD(x4), RD(x5), RD(x6);}
template<class T0, class T1> inline void OT(T0 &x0, T1 &x1){OT(x0), OT(x1);}
template<class T0, class T1, class T2> inline void OT(T0 &x0, T1 &x1, T2 &x2){OT(x0), OT(x1), OT(x2);}
template<class T0, class T1, class T2, class T3> inline void OT(T0 &x0, T1 &x1, T2 &x2, T3 &x3){OT(x0), OT(x1), OT(x2), OT(x3);}
template<class T0, class T1, class T2, class T3, class T4> inline void OT(T0 &x0, T1 &x1, T2 &x2, T3 &x3, T4 &x4){OT(x0), OT(x1), OT(x2), OT(x3), OT(x4);}
template<class T0, class T1, class T2, class T3, class T4, class T5> inline void OT(T0 &x0, T1 &x1, T2 &x2, T3 &x3, T4 &x4, T5 &x5){OT(x0), OT(x1), OT(x2), OT(x3), OT(x4), OT(x5);}
template<class T0, class T1, class T2, class T3, class T4, class T5, class T6> inline void OT(T0 &x0, T1 &x1, T2 &x2, T3 &x3, T4 &x4, T5 &x5, T6 &x6){OT(x0), OT(x1), OT(x2), OT(x3), OT(x4), OT(x5), OT(x6);}

template<class T> inline void RST(T &A){memset(A, 0, sizeof(A));}
template<class T0, class T1> inline void RST(T0 &A0, T1 &A1){RST(A0), RST(A1);}
template<class T0, class T1, class T2> inline void RST(T0 &A0, T1 &A1, T2 &A2){RST(A0), RST(A1), RST(A2);}
template<class T0, class T1, class T2, class T3> inline void RST(T0 &A0, T1 &A1, T2 &A2, T3 &A3){RST(A0), RST(A1), RST(A2), RST(A3);}
template<class T0, class T1, class T2, class T3, class T4> inline void RST(T0 &A0, T1 &A1, T2 &A2, T3 &A3, T4 &A4){RST(A0), RST(A1), RST(A2), RST(A3), RST(A4);}
template<class T0, class T1, class T2, class T3, class T4, class T5> inline void RST(T0 &A0, T1 &A1, T2 &A2, T3 &A3, T4 &A4, T5 &A5){RST(A0), RST(A1), RST(A2), RST(A3), RST(A4), RST(A5);}
template<class T0, class T1, class T2, class T3, class T4, class T5, class T6> inline void RST(T0 &A0, T1 &A1, T2 &A2, T3 &A3, T4 &A4, T5 &A5, T6 &A6){RST(A0), RST(A1), RST(A2), RST(A3), RST(A4), RST(A5), RST(A6);}
template<class T> inline void CLR(T &A){A.clear();}
template<class T0, class T1> inline void CLR(T0 &A0, T1 &A1){CLR(A0), CLR(A1);}
template<class T0, class T1, class T2> inline void CLR(T0 &A0, T1 &A1, T2 &A2){CLR(A0), CLR(A1), CLR(A2);}
template<class T0, class T1, class T2, class T3> inline void CLR(T0 &A0, T1 &A1, T2 &A2, T3 &A3){CLR(A0), CLR(A1), CLR(A2), CLR(A3);}
template<class T0, class T1, class T2, class T3, class T4> inline void CLR(T0 &A0, T1 &A1, T2 &A2, T3 &A3, T4 &A4){CLR(A0), CLR(A1), CLR(A2), CLR(A3), CLR(A4);}
template<class T0, class T1, class T2, class T3, class T4, class T5> inline void CLR(T0 &A0, T1 &A1, T2 &A2, T3 &A3, T4 &A4, T5 &A5){CLR(A0), CLR(A1), CLR(A2), CLR(A3), CLR(A4), CLR(A5);}
template<class T0, class T1, class T2, class T3, class T4, class T5, class T6> inline void CLR(T0 &A0, T1 &A1, T2 &A2, T3 &A3, T4 &A4, T5 &A5, T6 &A6){CLR(A0), CLR(A1), CLR(A2), CLR(A3), CLR(A4), CLR(A5), CLR(A6);}
template<class T> inline void CLR(T &A, int n){REP(i, n) CLR(A[i]);}
template<class T> inline void FLC(T &A, int x){memset(A, x, sizeof(A));}
template<class T0, class T1> inline void FLC(T0 &A0, T1 &A1, int x){FLC(A0, x), FLC(A1, x);}
template<class T0, class T1, class T2> inline void FLC(T0 &A0, T1 &A1, T2 &A2){FLC(A0), FLC(A1), FLC(A2);}
template<class T0, class T1, class T2, class T3> inline void FLC(T0 &A0, T1 &A1, T2 &A2, T3 &A3){FLC(A0), FLC(A1), FLC(A2), FLC(A3);}
template<class T0, class T1, class T2, class T3, class T4> inline void FLC(T0 &A0, T1 &A1, T2 &A2, T3 &A3, T4 &A4){FLC(A0), FLC(A1), FLC(A2), FLC(A3), FLC(A4);}
template<class T0, class T1, class T2, class T3, class T4, class T5> inline void FLC(T0 &A0, T1 &A1, T2 &A2, T3 &A3, T4 &A4, T5 &A5){FLC(A0), FLC(A1), FLC(A2), FLC(A3), FLC(A4), FLC(A5);}
template<class T0, class T1, class T2, class T3, class T4, class T5, class T6> inline void FLC(T0 &A0, T1 &A1, T2 &A2, T3 &A3, T4 &A4, T5 &A5, T6 &A6){FLC(A0), FLC(A1), FLC(A2), FLC(A3), FLC(A4), FLC(A5), FLC(A6);}

template<class T> inline void SRT(T &A){sort(ALL(A));}
template<class T, class C> inline void SRT(T &A, C B){sort(ALL(A), B);}

const int MOD = 1000000007;
const LL INF = 0x7fffffff;
const DB PI = acos(-1.0);
const DB EPS = 1e-6;
const DB OO = 1e15;

// <<= ` 0. Daily Use .,

template<class T> inline void checkMin(T &a,const T b){if (b<a) a=b;}
template<class T> inline void checkMax(T &a,const T b){if (b>a) a=b;}
template <class T, class C> inline void checkMin(T& a, const T b, C c){if (c(b,a)) a = b;}
template <class T, class C> inline void checkMax(T& a, const T b, C c){if (c(a,b)) a = b;}
template<class T> inline T min(T a, T b, T c){return min(min(a, b), c);}
template<class T> inline T max(T a, T b, T c){return max(max(a, b), c);}
template<class T> inline T sqr(T a){return a*a;}
template<class T> inline T cub(T a){return a*a*a;}
int Ceil(int x, int y){return (x - 1) / y + 1;}

// <<= ` 1. Bitwise Operation .,

inline bool _1(int x, int i){return x & 1<<i;}
inline int _1(int i){return 1<<i;}
inline int _U(int i){return _1(i) - 1;};

inline int count_bits(int x){
x = (x & 0x55555555) + ((x & 0xaaaaaaaa) >> 1);
x = (x & 0x33333333) + ((x & 0xcccccccc) >> 2);
x = (x & 0x0f0f0f0f) + ((x & 0xf0f0f0f0) >> 4);
x = (x & 0x00ff00ff) + ((x & 0xff00ff00) >> 8);
x = (x & 0x0000ffff) + ((x & 0xffff0000) >> 16);
return x;
}

template<class T> inline T low_bit(T x) {
return x & -x;
}

template<class T> inline T high_bit(T x) {
T p = low_bit(x);
while (p != x) x -= p, p = low_bit(x);
return p;
}

// <<= ` 2. Modular Arithmetic Basic .,

inline void INC(int &a, int b){a += b; if (a >= MOD) a -= MOD;}
inline int sum(int a, int b){a += b; if (a >= MOD) a -= MOD; return a;}
inline void DEC(int &a, int b){a -= b; if (a < 0) a += MOD;}
inline int dff(int a, int b){a -= b; if (a < 0) a  += MOD; return a;}
inline void MUL(int &a, int b){a = (LL)a * b % MOD;}
inline int pdt(int a, int b){return (LL)a * b % MOD;}

// <<= ' 0. I/O Accelerator interface .,

template<class T> inline void RD(T &x){
//cin >> x;
scanf("%d", &x);
//char c; for (c = getchar(); c < '0'; c = getchar()); x = c - '0'; for (c = getchar(); c >= '0'; c = getchar()) x = x * 10 + c - '0';
//char c; c = getchar(); x = c - '0'; for (c = getchar(); c >= '0'; c = getchar()) x = x * 10 + c - '0';

}

//int ____Case;
template<class T> inline void OT(const T &x){
//cout << x << endl;
printf("%lld\n", x);
//printf("%.2lf\n", x);
//printf("Case %d: %d\n", ++____Case, x);
}

#define For_each(it, A) for (SII::iterator it = A.begin(); it != A.end(); ++it)

/* .................................................................................................................................. */

const int N = 100001;

VI Q[N], ID[N];
// 询问..

int A[N]; LL B[N]; int n, m, a, b; LL d;
// A[] 存初始数组，B[] 存答案, a, b 表示询问区间。

LL K[4*N], D[4*N], KK[4*N], DD[4*N];
// 线段树，单点加减，区间成段最值 -> 成段加减，区间最值
// 当前的最大值，延迟标记，历史最大值，历史延迟标记。

int ____[N], Hash[N];

#define root 1, 1, n
#define lx (x << 1)
#define rx (lx | 1)
#define lc lx, l, m
#define rc rx, m+1, r

#define Update KK[x] = max(max(KK[lx], K[lx] + DD[lx]), max(KK[rx], K[rx] + DD[rx])), K[x] = max(K[lx] + D[lx],  K[rx] + D[rx])
#define Release checkMax(DD[lx], D[lx] + DD[x]), checkMax(DD[rx], D[rx] + DD[x]), D[lx] += D[x], D[rx] += D[x], DD[x] = -INF, D[x] = 0

void Insert(int x, int l, int r){
if (a <= l && r <= b){
D[x] += d, checkMax(DD[x], D[x]);
}
else {
int m = (l + r) >> 1; Release;
if (a <= m) Insert(lc); if (m < b) Insert(rc); Update;
}
}

LL Query(int x, int l, int r){
if (a <= l && r <= b){
return max(KK[x], K[x] + DD[x]);
}
else {
int m = (l + r) >> 1; Release, Update;
return max((a <= m ? Query(lc) : -INF), (m < b ? Query(rc) : -INF));
}
}

int main(){

//freopen("in.txt", "r", stdin);

REP_1_C(i, _RD(n)) RD(A[i]);

REP_C(i, _RD(m)) RD(a, b), Q[b].PB(a), ID[b].PB(i);

REP_1_N(b, n){

a = Hash[A[b]] + 1, d = A[b], Insert(root), Hash[d] = b;

REP(i, SZ(Q[b])){
a = Q[b][i], B[ID[b][i]] = Query(root);
}
}

REP(i, m) OT(B[i]);
}
```